Intertidal rocks with holes made by burrowing bivalves called piddocks contributes to coastal erosion processes.

Seatown Rock with Piddock Holes

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A contributory factor in the erosion of the beach rock at Seatown in Dorset is the burrowing activity of the marine bivalve mollusc called the piddock. Low on the shore millions of holes in the soft calcareous mudstones are evidence for the burrows made by Pholas dactylus. The holes are almost circular in shape reaching up to two centimetres in diameter,  and can occur as a scatter or as dense populations wherever the rock remains wet between the tides. They seem to prefer the darker layers rather than the alternating light layers – although they are found in both. The rock on the east Seatown shoreline is composed of alternating almost horizontal layers of pale (carbonate-rich and carbon-poor) mudstone, and darker (carbon–rich and carbonate-poor) mudstone from the Belemnite Marl Member of the Charmouth Mudstone Formation.

Where successive generations of this boring mollusc have colonised the strata, the mudstone has been reduced to an irregular honeycombed mass. Most of the holes seem unoccupied and small pieces of orange-coloured gravel have filled them. In some burrows the empty white shells of the piddock can still be seen. Some of the burrows are undoubtedly still occupied but I did not have an opportunity to locate any for photographs since the area was only exposed for half an hour. The shells of the living animals may not have been visible because they tend to lie deep within the burrow but the living specimens can often be detected by the fact that their siphons extend from the shell to the surface and these periodically squirt out water during low-tide.

Pebbles and beach stones which have neat circular holes in them are frequently wave-washed and beach-tumbled pieces of rock that have broken away from intertidal rock layers that have been riddled with burrows made by rock-boring molluscs such as piddocks, in the way shown in these photographs from Seatown in Dorset, England, along the World Heritage Jurassic Coast.

12 Replies to “Seatown Rock with Piddock Holes”

  1. Interesting. What do you suppose accounts for the larger holes shown in the foreground of Seatown Rock with Piddock Holes 9? Is it just where the smaller holes have run together?


  2. Yes, you are right. The largest irregular shaped holes are an amalgam of several burrows created one after the other at varying angles to the surface. This means that the shaft of a new burrow intersects old empty ones. All is revealed when the surface of the rock wears away.


  3. One hole has been made by a single piddock in its lifetime – I am not certain how many years that would be. The piddock occupies the burrow that it has been steadily enlarged throughout its lifetime and it is a “prisoner” within it because the entrance hole is smaller than the width of the adult shell. Its only connection to the outer world is via two tubular siphons. When the piddock dies, its shells remain in the hole. Subsequent generations of piddocks may create burrows at angles that cut across the shaft of the old burrow, making large irregular cavities which are only revealed when the outer layers of rock are worn away.


  4. Whoa…this is so cool. I’ve found these very same Mudrocks (thank you for giving it a name) in Southern California (Zuma Beach and Summerland-just south of Santa Barbara.). I even have much more elaborate mud rocks that keep me mesmerized for long periods of time. I just found this site so I’m going to have to look up whatever the Jurassic coast is. I’ve often wondered how old these might be.

    I have them blown away by the banding and amazing patterns found in many of my rocks.
    I am only very recently getting in to this to the point where I actually am dying to find out the names and the whereabouts from which these come. Anyway, I think you for taking the time to blog and giving many of us some insight as to the treasures we have found.

    Best regards,


  5. Thank you, Brooke. There are quite a few sites on-line about the geology of Zuma Beach (which looks amazing) and the surrounding area so it should be relatively easy to find out more information about the name of the your rocks and how old they are. The World Heritage Designated Jurassic Coast on the south coast of England, is actually made up of Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic rocks (three successive geological periods) and stretches from Poole in Dorset in the east to Devon in the west. It is famous for its wonderful geological formations and the incredible fossils in the rocks.


  6. Jessica – I’ve found small surface burrows on Lias at Lyme that are almost like the Nazca lines to look at – folded and sinous, about 1-2mm across. Any ideas what might have made them?


  7. Hello Lois. Thank you for the photograph of the burrows.
    These marks are made by marine polychaete worms of the Polydora species. They live in tubes made of mud and mucus that are insinuated in cracks and crevices in softer rocks and seashells. The excretory products of the worm are acidic and gradually erode the substrate etching these characteristic marks. The worm is doubled up in a u-shape so that the front and back ends of the worm lie side by side at the opening of the burrow. From the surface of the rock or shell the hole leading into the burrow is approximately figure of eight shape. If the rock or shell is broken so that the burrow or burrows are split open lengthwise, it is often possible to see these burrows closely nestling together as in your photograph. There are several posts on Jessica’s Nature Blog featuring photographs and explanations of these burrows in rocks along the Dorset coast, such as: [Lyme Regis]
    You can also enter the word Polydora in the search box of the site and this will bring up all posts that include references to this genus of worm and its burrows.
    Hope this helps


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