There is an island called Spencer’s Island just off shore in the north Minas Basin in Nova Scotia, Canada. The same name also applies to the small community on the mainland opposite the island. It is the rocky outcrops along the beach of the mainland that feature here. While the island itself is mainly igneous basalt extruded in the Jurassic period, the steeply dipping strata along the mainland shore are composed of Carboniferous period Cumberland Group rocks (approximately the same type as are found at the famous Joggins Fossil Cliffs further north).
At the moment, I have not managed to find information to explain the details of these rocks but they certainly are interesting to look at. I know that they are composed of sandstones, siltstones, and shale (I didn’t notice any conglomerate or coal which are typical of this rock group). They are rapidly wearing away. They are severely impacted by strong tides and currents especially over the winter months. The outcrops reveal multiple layers of sedimentary deposits which occur in a cyclical way with harder more solid bands alternating with softer finely laminated ones. This reflects the depositional environment which was changing on a regular basis. All the rocks are subject to fine fracturing on a massive scale so that the slightest touch would cause the crumbling fragments to cascade to the beach. Sometimes the weathering process has led to falls of large boulders. Sometimes the outcrop is reduced to fine scree.
It was a very cold, dull, windy, wet day in late May when we visited Spencer’s Beach and we were very glad to discover a delightful beach cafe where we filled up on coffee and clam chowder. The beach was once a busy ship-building yard – famous as the place that built the Mary-Celeste.