Rocks & Pebbles near Twlc Point

Broughton Bay is a wide sandy expanse on the north shore of the Gower Peninsula in South Wales, facing the Loughor Estuary or Burry Inlet. A small promontory called Twlc Point at the western end of the beach has an interesting geology with an exposure of Hunts Bay Oolite from the Carboniferous Period. I have written about these strata in earlier posts such as:

Rocks on the west side of Broughton Bay Part 1

Rocks on the west side of Broughton Bay Part 2

Rocks on the west side of Broughton Bay Part 3

Brachiopod fossils in Hunts Bay Oolite at Broughton Bay

On this particular visit I was content to appreciate the way that pebbles of many types and colours on the upper shore were clustered around outcrops and boulders of the limestone which were often pink-tinged and sometimes fossiliferous.

Pebbles at Langland Bay

Pebbles from Carboniferous Period rocks at Langland Bay

The pebbles at Langland Bay are all sedimentary rock as far as I can see but they include many different rock types from shores further away. Red and green Devonian sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates; light and dark bluish-grey Lower and Upper Carboniferous Period limestones (some with fossils), and shales; Namurian sandstones, grits, shales and coal measures with black and iron-bearing deposits; and no doubt the occasional erratic brought in by the ice sheets in periods of glaciation.  Consequently there is a great variety of colours, textures and patterns. Pebbles with holes made by sea creatures such as piddocks or other boring bivalved molluscs, or by marine polychaete worms and sponges are also a frequent occurrence. The pictures show the pebbles mostly in the the positions where they were found although I may have moved the odd one or two.

Beach Stones with Iron at Rhossili

A beach stone made of iron on the Gower Peninsula in South Wales

When you visit a place often enough, you think you have seen all there is to see. For all the photographs of rocks and pebbles that I have taken over the years, I don’t think I had ever noticed so many stones made of iron as I did on my last trip to Rhossili on the Gower Peninsula, South Wales. Mostly they were lying in the narrow strip of pebbles, cobbles, and boulders that is exposed on the upper reaches of the sandy shore, right at the base of Rhossili Down.

Some of these iron stones appear to be made entirely from iron (maybe iron carbonate) while others were sedimentary rock with a solid iron centre, or with groups or bands of small iron nodules. One stone was stratified with black and rust layers. All of them were very heavy and many exhibited concretionary layers. I know very little about these stones. Their forms of iron are distinctly different from the haematite form that I have previously shown in other blog posts about Gower geology, and from the iron pyrites nodules I have featured from Dorset’s Jurassic rocks. Those stones with groups or layers of smaller nodules look like the siderite form of iron that I photographed at Joggins in Nova Scotia. Iron is recorded in Lower Carboniferous rock strata and also in the Coal Measures higher up in the geological sequence, so iron stones on this Gower beach make general sense but they may have been transported there from another location. Clearly more investigation is required.

Pebbles at Whiteford (4)

Pebbles, shells, and a feather on the beach near Whiteford Point

A sand bar spreads southeast from Whiteford Point in Gower, South Wales. At low tide in the Burry Estuary, it is part of a very extensive sandy area over which cockle and mussel fisherman can traverse in vehicles from places further along the north Gower coast. The sand depth is variable and mostly envelops a spit of pebbles. Sometimes the pebbles are entirely hidden. Sometimes they are partially exposed. Intermixed with the pebbles are seashells – cockles, mussels, whelks, and oysters are the most commonly occurring. There is a wide range of colours and textures in the pebbles and they are particularly interesting because of the range of rock types they represent.

As you take a 360 degree scan of the horizon from this isolated expanse of sand and pebbles, there is not a single rocky outcrop in sight. So where have these beach stones come from? The collection includes sedimentary rocks from the locally occurring Carboniferous limestone and Devonian sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates – like the bedrock exposed at Rhossili and at Broughton Bay. It also includes samples from higher up in the Carboniferous strata such as the Millstone Grits, sandstones, and shales, and Coal Measure layers. These strata underlie the Burry Estuary into which this spit extends, east Gower, and the Swansea district and way beyond. There are many rock types with which I am not familiar but I notice that some are metamorphic and igneous in nature. So how have all these rocks ended up on this spit, far from their place of origin?

Part of the answer is undoubtedly the effect of sea drift, currents, and storms carrying weathered and broken stones along the shores of Carmarthen Bay and into the estuary or inlet – but a significant proportion of the stones are thought to have been brought to the area from considerable distances away by glaciation, and deposited by the melting of an ice sheet, possibly in the late Devensian era about 24,000 years ago. Most of these stones lie hidden in a mass beneath the Whiteford Dunes but some are exposed high on the shore at the foot of the dunes, and beneath the disused iron lighthouse on Whiteford Point. Over time the waves have dislodged the often frost-shattered stones from the surface of the deposit, and washed them further along the beach around the Point to form pebble spits and banks, in the process smoothing and rounding them into the pebbles visible today.

Click here for more posts about Whiteford Sands, Whiteford Point, and Whiteford Burrows.

Rhossili pebbles in a basket

Pebbles with white lines from Rhossili: Assortment of mostly striped pebbles from Rhossili, Gower, South Wales, showing appearance when dry (1)

An assortment of pebbles found on the beach at Rhossili on the Gower Peninsula, showing the significant difference between the appearance of the pebbles when they are wet and when they are dry. This selection of pebbles contains varied rock types but I chose them for display because of their mostly striped markings.

Wet striped pebbles in a basket: Assortment of pebbles, mostly with striped patterns, from Rhossili, Gower, South Wales, showing appearance when wet (2)


All Rights Reserved

Rhossili pebbles on a plate

Rhossili pebbles: Assortment of pebbles from Rhossili on the Gower Penisula with a common coarse-grained sandy textured, smooth flattened shape, and subtle colours of grey, beige and pink; possibly Millstone Grit from the Upper Carboniferous Period.

A selection of pebbles from Rhossili Beach: rounded but flattened, with a coarse sandy texture, and in subtle shades of grey, beige and pink, displayed on a sea-green glazed plate. I think these might all be derived from Millstone Grit rock which is part of the Carboniferous Period strata which make up the  landward portion of the Gower Peninsula. I am thinking that they could all have been washed around the coastline from their point of origin, or even brought to the tip of the peninsula by the action of the ice sheets that once almost entirely covered Gower.


All Rights Reserved